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- ItemThe Medicare Prescription Drug, Modernization, and Improvement Act of 2003: Why it Passed and What it Says About the State of American Politics(2004) Greger, Christine M.In recent years, senior citizens have called upon government to add a benefit to Medicare to cover prescription drugs, upon which they are increasingly reliant. Late in 2003, Congress and President Bush approved the Medicare Prescription Drug, Modernization and Improvement Act of 2003 (MPDMIA), adding a prescription drug benefit to Medicare, the primary health care provider for Americans over 65. Considering that there was broad public support for such reform, MPDMIA appears to be a breakthrough. However, closer examination suggests that the bill falls short of seniors' need. After the drug benefit is implemented in 2006, seniors' out-of pocket drug costs will remain high and many will lose their retiree benefits because of the legislation. Also of concern, the stability of Medicare as a whole may be threatened due to privatization mandates in the bill. This paper explains the puzzles behind MPDMIA's passage, first uncovering motivations of the Republican Party and pharmaceutical industry. Next, the paper discloses information behind Democratic support of the legislation and that of AARP, formerly known as American Association of Retired Persons. Evidence suggests that some lawmakers' decisions were inappropriately manipulated by the bill's proponents, and that AARP's support of the bill, which was an influential factor for legislators, did not in fact reflect the interests of seniors. Finally, the analysis of the creation and passage of MPDMIA exposes a breakdown in the central tenet of representation in American democracy. More specifically, the success of this policy indicates the failure of groups to represent their members and of elected officials to represent their constituents and the public good.
- ItemDeux Versions de I'esthetique Romantique Rossini vu par Stendhal et Berlioz(2004) Lawson, ShelleyÂ«Depuis la mort de Napoleon, il s'est trouve un autre homme duquel on parle tous jours [sic] ... La gloire de cet homme ne connait d'autres bornes que celles de la civilisationÂ» (Stendhal, La vie de Rossini, vol. L 1). Par ces mots elogieux, Stendhal (1783-1842)-un ecrivain celebre et un des chefs du mouvement romantique franyaisouvre sa biographie du compositeur d'opera italien, Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868). La Vie de Rossini (1823). Mais la verite est que la gloire meme de Rossini. telle qu'elle est imaginee par Stendhal, avait ses limites dans les cenacles romantiques. Pendant les annees 1820. la musique de Rossini divisait les Parisiens de I' epoque en deux factions: les Â« Rossinistes Â» et les detracteurs de ce compositeur. 1 Parmi ces derniers se trouvait un jeune compositeur franyais, Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), qui detestait la musique italienne. et dont la colere etait tellement extreme qu'il desirait meme bruler Ie Theatreltalien (Berl ioz, Memoires, vol. 1, 70-71). Dans ses Atemoires (1865), ecrites quelques annees avant sa mort, Berlioz attaque la biographie de Stendhal (decede depuis plus de vingt ans) avec les mots suivants : Â« M. Beyle, [... ] a ecrit une Vie de Rossini sous Ie pseudonyme de Stendhal et les plus irritantes stupidites sur la musique. dont il croyait avoir Ie sentimentÂ» (Berlioz, vol. L 215)?
- ItemDictyostelium Myosin Bipolar Thick Filament Formation: Importance of Charge and Specific Domains of the Myosin Rod(Public Library of Science, 2004-11) Altman, David; Hostetter, Daniel; Rice, Sarah; Dean, Sara; McMahon, Peggy M.; Sutton, Shirley; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Spudich, James A.Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) "head" is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines.
- Item“Snow White”: Agency and Evil in Adaptations for Children(2009-05-20T16:09:54Z) Harrison, LynseyAn exploration of how ethical dilemmas are depicted in juvenile fictions versions of Snow White. Adaptations of this classic fairy tale walk a fine line between editing the story to be child friendly and maintaining the story’s integrity. In this project, particular attention will be paid to how children’s books alter Snow White to use the moral dilemma of the Huntsman and the final punishment of the Evil Queen as opportunities to teach lessons about justice.
- ItemEthical Challenges for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness(2009-05-20T16:10:15Z) Mix, SamanthaThis project addresses several ethical issues related to pandemic influenza preparedness planning. In a pandemic emergency, medical and public health energies would likely be most focused upon preventing further spread of the disease and keeping people alive rather than responding to ethical quandaries that emerge in the pandemic’s wake. It is therefore critical to examine such quandaries and develop ethical guidelines before the pandemic occurs. Ethical issues considered in this project include quarantine, distribution and use of medical supplies, and the obligations and responsibilities of medical professionals and the government vis-à-vis patients and the public. This project also examines the position of socioeconomically disadvantaged populations who tend to suffer disproportionately in epidemic emergencies.
- ItemSocio-Religious Authority in Post-Modern Egypt: Islamists and ‘ulamā in the eyes of Egypt’s ummah(2009-05-20T16:10:23Z) Andrew, KenagyIn contemporary Egypt, moderate Islamists, embodied by many members of the Muslim Brotherhood, have captured popular religious authority by supplanting the social role of the less adaptive traditional religious elite in an economically struggling, post-colonial Egypt. The urban poor of Egypt, a sizable part of the country’s population (chiefly consisting of its Muslim ummah) still relate to the traditional ‘ulamā (clerics) to fulfill their need to maintain cultural continuity in traditional mosque-based piety, while placing greater value in the potentially more helpful political activities and social services of moderate Islamists as their means of authenticating religious practice – doing religion in meaningful ways - and economic relief.
- ItemConsistently large cosmic flows on scales of 100 h−1 Mpc: a challenge for the standard ΛCDM cosmology(Oxford Academic, 2009-12-23) Watkins, Richard; Feldman, Hume A.; Hudson, Michael J.The bulk flow, i.e. the dipole moment of the peculiar velocity field, is a sensitive probe of matter density fluctuations on very large scales. However, the peculiar velocity surveys for which the bulk flow has been calculated have non-uniform spatial distributions of tracers, so that the bulk flow estimated does not correspond to that of a simple volume such as a sphere. Thus bulk flow estimates are generally not strictly comparable between surveys, even those whose effective depths are similar. In addition, the sparseness of typical surveys can lead to aliasing of small-scale power into what is meant to be a probe of the largest scales. Here we introduce a new method of calculating bulk flow moments where velocities are weighted to give an optimal estimate of the bulk flow of an idealized survey, with the variance of the difference between the estimate and the actual flow being minimized. These ‘minimum variance’ estimates can be designed to estimate the bulk flow on a particular scale with minimal sensitivity to small-scale power, and are comparable between surveys. We compile all major peculiar velocity surveys and apply this new method to them. We find that most surveys we studied are highly consistent with each other. Taken together the data suggest that the bulk flow within a Gaussian window of radius 50 h−1 Mpc is 407 ± 81 km s−1 toward l= 287°± 9°, b= 8°± 6°. The large-scale bulk motion is consistent with predictions from the local density field. This indicates that there are significant density fluctuations on very large scales. A flow of this amplitude on such a large scale is not expected in the WMAP5 (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) normalized Λ cold dark matter cosmology, for which the predicted one-dimensional rms velocity is ∼110 km s−1. The large amplitude of the observed bulk flow favours the upper values of the WMAP5 Ωmh2–σ8 error-ellipse, but even the point at the top of the WMAP595 per cent confidence ellipse predicts a bulk flow which is too low compared to that observed at >98 per cent confidence level.
- ItemChanges in Anaerobic Work Output Following a Carbohydrate Loading Protocol(2010-04-21T21:29:42Z) Schultz, Leslie; Cebron, James; Soma, EricaCarbohydrate loading is a common pre competition method that aims to improve athletic performance. It has most commonly been used in endurance activities, however there is some evidence that it may also improve anaerobic performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of carbohydrate loading on anaerobic work, measured by an anaerobic treadmill test. Participants were college varsity athletes who performed two anaerobic treadmill tests, one with carbohydrate loading the evening prior to the test and the other after a normal diet. Anaerobic work was calculated and results were analyzed with a one tailed student’s t-test. Subjects generated an average of 22.90 ± 9.55 kJ of work under the loading condition, and only an average of 20.716 ± 8.39 kJ of work under the non-loading condition. The statistical analysis revealed a p value of .011. Given these results, the hypothesis that carbohydrate loading would cause a significant increase in anaerobic performance was accepted.
- ItemIn A Theory of Justice(2010-04-23T16:52:51Z) Tirrell, CariIn A Theory of Justice, Rawls claims that his two‐principle society will be the best society for forming self‐respect among its citizens. He thinks that the two principles will cause people to realize that society is working towards their best interests, and that this will make them feel that they are worthwhile to society, which will foster a sense of self‐respect. In this paper, I will argue that Rawls’s notion of self‐respect is incoherent given the context of the rest of his theory.
- ItemApplications of Environmental History on Bolivia’s Coca Trade(2010-04-23T17:39:06Z) Baptista, RafaelBolivia’s coca trade offers one of the most compelling narratives of the complexity of environmental history in Latin American. This is indeed a case where economic instability, social power struggles, and neoliberal economic policies combined to pose not only a highly visible social and health threat (worldwide increase of drug consumption) but also a threat to long-term sustainability of both the environment and agricultural crops.
- ItemSpace of the Other: Sexual Politics and Post-colonialism in the Novels of Marguerite Duras(2010-04-23T20:43:30Z) Kalama, WailanaWhat is Duras? My thesis looks at Duras’ attempts to explore her own identity, and especially sexual identity, within a colonial framework. A published writer since the fifties, Duras continually explored the realm of the feminine by writing alternative and innovative styles of literature until her death in 1996. She is one of many voices in French New Feminist literary discourse growing in popularity in the past fifty years. In this movement, portrayals of the female have diverted to unconventional realms, from Françoise Sagan’s anti-sentimentalism, to Violette Le Duc’s lesbian erotica, and Anne Desclos’ sadomasochistic fiction. Raised in French-occupied Indochina, Duras offers a unique perspective as a hybrid that is neither fully part of one world nor the other. Her heritage and her experiences have cultivated a person that is part of the landscape, and her concept of Self is continually reformed and adhering to the Other. Her re-conceptualization of Asia into her own projected, subjective view of the continent (Durasie) allows for a new space in which to work outside the European gender binary. The questions of identity and of the female in relation to her Space permeate Duras’ works. She uses her personalized view of the Oriental environment and masculinity to strengthen her position as an independent female voice that is not qualified by a Western binary.
- ItemTed Bundy vs. Hannibal Lecter: An Exploration of Factual and Fictional Serial Murderers from the Mid-20th to Early-21st Centuries(2010-05-11T16:53:53Z) Parker, JessicaSerial murder is by no means a postmodern phenomenon exclusive to the United States. There are many documented cases of serial murder in various parts of the world prior to the twentieth-century, and countless more have occurred since. For example, Hickey (1985) found 47 serial murderer cases in foreign countries and Smith (1987) describes a number of serial murderers from southern and southeast Asia, Europe, and England. One of the most well-known cases of serial murder is by London’s unidentified “Jack the Ripper” who killed several prostitutes in 1888 (Seltzer 1998). Despite the abundance of universal cases, the American fascination with serial murder, especially the individual offenders of these crimes, has increased dramatically within the past 50 years. The crime of serial murder is discussed in the media via talk shows and news reports, is portrayed in fictional books and Hollywood films, and is studied at length by academic scholars. More remarkable is the individual serial murderer as an American pop culture icon. Beyond the ordinary biographies and documentaries there exists a whole subset of commodities created to glamorize the serial murderer, such as trading cards, comic books, magazines, and “murderabilia” (Fox and Levin 2005). Additionally, certain serial murderers receive recognition and fame through the mainstream media. For example, Jeffery Dahmer was on the cover of People and was chosen by this magazine as one of its “25 Most Intriguing People of 1991” (Fox and Levin 1994).
- ItemWhat’s In a Name?: The Rhetoric of “People of Color” in Counterpublic Formation(2010-05-11T18:30:21Z) Chase, WigginsThe term “people of color” has recently come to replace terms such as “minority,” “non-white” and “historically underrepresented people,” as the generally preferred term by members of these groups. The intentional use of “people of color” as a means of identification has risen in usage particularly amongst scholars who situate themselves within the American Ethnic Studies tradition, which takes seriously critical race theory, in short, the idea that race does matter, as well as the power of language to create and perpetuate systemic oppression. Language, therefore, when critically examined and used with proper care and intent can also be used to create a more inclusive reality. “People of color”, then, is a term that allows members of the group who identify as such, to construct themselves positively, that is, according to what they are, rather than what they are not–as is the case with non-white. It is an empowering term in light of the racially stratified social structures, which have traditionally cast them in disempowering terms such as minority and underrepresented.
- Item“Forward Out of Error, Forward into Light:” Hunger Striking, Force-Feeding, and Historiographical Oversight in Three Women's Suffrage Movements, 1909-1918(2010-05-11T18:39:49Z) McCartan, Alison“Cracking Eggs:” Introduction Yesterday afternoon at about four or five, Mrs. Lewis and I were asked to go to the operating room. Went there and found our clothes. Told we were to go to Washington. No reason as usual. When we were dressed, Dr. Gannon appeared, and said he wished to examine us. Both refused. Were dragged through the halls by force, our clothing partly removed by force, and we were examined, heart tested, blood pressure, and pulse taken. Of course such data was of no value after such a struggle. Dr. Gannon told me I must be fed. Was stretched on bed, two doctors, matron, four colored prisoners present, Whittaker in hall. I was held down by five people at the legs, arms, and head. I refused to open my mouth. Gannon pushed tube up left nostril. I turned and twisted my head all I could, but he managed to push it up. It hurts nose and throat very much and makes nose bleed freely. Tube drawn out covered with blood. Operation leaves one very sick. Food dumped directly into stomach feels like a ball of lead. Left nostril, throat and muscles of neck very sore all night. After this I was brought into the hospital in an ambulance. Mrs. Lewis and I placed in same room. Slept hardly at all. This morning Dr. Ladd appeared with his tube. Mrs. Lewis and I said we would not be forcibly fed. Said he would call in men guards and force us to submit. Went away and we were not fed at all this morning. We hear them outside now cracking eggs.1 In this passage, Lucy Burns describes the experience of being force-fed at Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia in 1917, where she had been imprisoned after her arrest for militant suffrage activities. As had become standard practice among suffrage prisoners at the time, Burns went on hunger strike to protest her imprisonment as a common criminal and not as a political prisoner. Since 1909, hunger striking had been employed in the women’s suffrage campaigns of Britain, Ireland, and the United States, and hunger strikers in all three countries underwent the harrowing process of being forcibly fed. Considering the shock value of an account like Burns’, one might imagine the issue of suffragette hunger striking and force-feeding to have generated significant historical interest. However, this aspect of the movements appears in only a very small portion of works pertaining to women’s suffrage.
- ItemCan Virtue Make Us Happy? The Art of Living and Morality: Otfried Höffe(2010-05-11T18:47:31Z) Murphy, ErynHöffe’s first question is how to determine and define “the good.” He cites three habits, three interests, and three meanings that, together, form a recipe for an understanding of goodness. “Good” can apply to any one of the three meanings of ethos: Ethos 1, the habits associated with the relationship between an organism and its location; Ethos 2, moral habits that correspond to societal conventions; and/or Ethos 3, habits that form a personal course, independent of society’s influence. Habits can be evaluated through the lens of three interests. They can be examined empirically, through description of cultural moral habits and through explanations of origin and function. They can be examined with concern for the normative task, either in an effort to evaluate the validity and morality of the habit or to prescribe “should” imperatives that apply to both eudaimonistic and deontological views. Finally, they can be examined through attention to moral philosophy, seeking a meta-ethical standard for standards.
- ItemLocus of Control as a Mediator in the Relationship Between Sex Education and Sexual Behavior in Adolescents(2010-05-11T19:21:13Z) Kudroff, KachinaA model in which locus of control acted as a mediator in the relationship between sex education and sexual behavior in adolescents was tested. One hundred forty college student participants completed an online survey which measured sexual behavior, locus of control, condom use self-efficacy, sexual knowledge, and experiences with sex education in school. Although significant relationships were found between sex education and sexual behavior, no significant relationships were revealed between sex education and locus of control or locus of control and sexual behavior resulting in rejection of the hypothesized model. Exploratory supplementary analyses revealed significant relationships between condom use self-efficacy, knowledge, and sexual behavior. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, along with possible explanations of the findings.
- ItemThe Undead and the Living God: How 19th Century Vampire Literature Participates in the Epistemological Discourse of the Victorian Era(2010-05-12T18:50:49Z) Harrison, LynseyAn investigation into how 19th century vampire literature reveals the evolving religious beliefs of 19th century Britain. This presentation will examine Polidori’s “The Vampyre,” Le Fanu’s “Carmilla,” Stevenson’s “Olalla,” and Stoker’s Dracula in terms of the underlying religious beliefs revealed by how vampires are depicted in each story. Žižek’s concept of belief before belief will also be used to understand how practice and belief interact in these texts. Using these explorations, it will then be possible to draw conclusions about how and why vampire fiction has experienced windfalls in the 19th and now the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
- ItemCan Virtue Make Us Happy? The Art of Living and Morality(2010-05-12T18:56:17Z) Burns, KathrynIs happiness found through an external focus on accomplishing goals in the material world? Or is happiness fashioned through an internal focus on performing one’s duty according to the moral standards of one’s community (religious or secular)? Might happiness (eudaimonia) consist in taking personal responsibility for one’s creative capacity to accomplish things that nature cannot accomplish on its own? Might viewing virtue in terms of the origins of one’s creativity rather than the external consequences of one’s actions lead to an understanding of virtue that allows us to be human and happy?
- ItemHybridization of Home: Development of Diasporic Domesticity in the Contemporary Literature of Britain’s Bangladeshi Diaspora(2010-05-12T19:55:10Z) Donaldson, EmilyI want to break tradition—unlock this room where women dress in the dark Discover the lies my mother told me. The lies that we are small an powerless that our possibilities must be compressed to the size of pearls, displayed only as passive chokers, charms around our neck. Break tradition. –Janice Mirikitani1 Corsets. Drawing rooms. Parties. Family. Letter writing. Marriage. These motifs are the features of traditional domestic fiction. At its height in the Victorian era, domestic fiction allowed women writers and female protagonists to find their literary voice for the first time. The genre affirmed the self-realization of women in the space of their home. And although novels like Pride and Prejudice, Middlemarch, and Mrs. Dalloway are still beloved today, novels that celebrate an idealized domestic space are scarcely written in modernity. With suffrage, access to education, the feminist movement, and overall female empowerment, women writers seem increasingly to “find their voice” outside of the domestic tradition. When domestic novels are written today the traditional notions of female identity, family, and home are deconstructed and defined anew.